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Wednesday, November 05, 2014

Jesus and the temple

Feast of the Dedication of the Lateran Basilica in Rome

Gospel John 2:13-22

As I continued to read, study, and pray over the Gospel, I realized that there is so much more to this message than just an angry Jesus. Today’s Gospel reveals a profound message about rituals and knowing Christ in an intimate and personal way. So let’s take a few minutes and try to discern the message together.

Jesus had traveled to Jerusalem for the Passover. It was customary that at least once in a lifetime all Jewish males would go to the temple for Passover. So when Jesus arrived there must have been thousands of people filling the city, the narrow streets, and the temple area. He would have witnesses a chaotic scene; people exchanging money, the selling of sacrificial animals, loud noises, and food venders selling nourishment to the travelers, all in the proximity of the temple. This hustle and bustle, the buying and selling, and other actions apparently angered Jesus.

But as the scripture says, he didn’t just act impulsively as one might think. He thought about what his actions were to be as he took the time to make a whip out of cords, and then began chasing out the animals, turning over the tables, and telling others to take those things away. This wasn’t a fit of anger, but an act of disruption. To Jesus, this was a moment of crisis for the people of the Jewish faith. He saw that the heart of the faith had become lost in their ritualism. He was confronting the Jewish people with a deeply uncomfortable truth. This was to be a moment to re-evaluate and to re-assess. He wanted them to think: “Was it enough for the Jewish people to fulfill their rituals, or did they need to reconnect with what the rituals actually represented?” It wasn’t that Jesus was opposed to rituals; he himself was a Jewish man, steeped in the law and the ways of the synagogue. But he clearly witnessed something very disturbing, a disconnect between the people and God.

The Gospel messages are not just something of the past, they are alive, and they always have a relevant and pertinent messaged for us.

So what does all this mean to us here today? We should probably take a few moments and think about some our own actions, our own rituals. Let’s start with the first thing we do as we walk into the church. We dip our fingers into the holy water and bless ourselves. So, let’s ask ourselves, as we do this, what are we thinking? Are we immediately reminded of the waters of our baptism? Or of the cleansing, life-giving, and the purifying effects of water? Or has it become an empty ritual. How about as we approach our pew and genuflect before entering. Where is in our mind and our thoughts as we genuflect? Are our eyes immediately focused on the tabernacle and of Christ within it? Is our gesture of reverence directed to our Lord and Savior as our King? Or has it become and empty ritual?

Or what about some of the things we do within the Mass? Do we even know why we do them? I have noticed that most of us do something in this church that no other church in the diocese does, or at least I haven’t seen it done. After Father receives the gifts, the bread and wine, and they are placed upon the altars he prays over them. He then turns to wash his hands and before he even touches the water everyone stands. Why do we stand? Is it in reverence of Father washing his hands? No! We stand for what comes after the washing of father’s hands. After Father washes his hands he then returns to the altar and asks us to pray as he says, “Pray brothers and sisters that my sacrifice and yours may be acceptable to God, the Almighty Father. It is in the response, our response to God, that we stand and pray, not the washing of his hands. We are standing at the wrong time.Our actions, especially at Mass have meaning, and doing them at the correct time is important, otherwise they become empty rituals, just something we are doing because everyone else is doing it.

Please do not misunderstand my words as those of a chastisement, they are not meant to be, but rather a reminded to all of us, me included, that we are to see beyond our rituals and to know what we are doing, and why we are doing it. It isn’t so much the ritual that pleases God, but our thoughts, our hearts, and our true devotion that pleases him. Now returning to the Gospel once again, the Jews responded to Jesus by questioning him and his authority. They asked, “What sign can you show us for doing this?” They didn’t recognize Jesus for who he was. So Jesus answered and said to them, “Destroy this temple and in three days I will raise it up.” Not knowing who Jesus was, what Jesus said made no sense to them. They responded, “This temple has been under construction for forty-six years, and you will raise it up in three days?” Jesus was speaking about the temple of his Body not the physical building.

This concept of Knowing and Recognizing Christ is of great importance to us and to all Christians. It isn’t so much of knowing about Christ, as much as it is of knowing him personally. Not knowing him personally or having a personal relationship with Him is more common than you might think, even for Catholics today. Did you know that a recent study of Catholics across America showed that almost half of Catholics today think it is not possible to have a personal relationship with God,? (40%) That statistic shocked me. But it is true.Many Catholics believe in God, Jesus, and their Spirit, but find that they don’t have a personal relationship with any of them. Without a personal relationship, without an intimate relationship, that means they know about them, but they do not know them. That changes everything, especially the idea of the Eucharist. If a person doesn’t personally know Christ, then how can they recognize him and experience him the Eucharist. Maybe they don’t. Maybe for them it has become, or always has been, and empty ritual. If so, no wonder why so many have left the faith and can so easily walk away from the Eucharist and the Sacraments. They have never known Jesus. Maybe they have known about Him, but not knowing him personally and intimately, they were never able to experience him in the sacraments.Maybe that explains why the confession lines are so short, and the communion lines are so long. It is just a ritual for them. One who knows Jesus, can recognize him, and experience him in an intimate way, can clearly see him in the Eucharist. And upon seeing him, they would never want to come upon him full of sin, so they prepare themselves. They cleanse and purify themselves with routine confession so they are prepared for that holy encounter. Otherwise, unprepared and uncleansed, we are placing Jesus into something unclean, our sinful bodies.Saint Paul tells us “Therefore whoever eats the bread or drinks the cup of the Lord unworthily will have to answer for the body and blood of the Lord.” Meaning: directly sinning against Jesus himself.” 

There isn’t one of us who travels through life without experiencing sin, and in this current culture serious sin isn’t uncommon. It is that sin that must be confessed and forgiven before taking Holy Communion.Saint Paul urges us by saying. “A person should examine himself,for anyone who eats and drinks without discerning the body, eats and drinks judgment on himself.”I realized these are strong words that I am sharing today, and some of you might be put off by them. I hope not! Wasn’t Jesus acting in a strong way in today’s Gospel? Yet that doesn’t mean he wasn’t acting in love, nor does my message mean to be anything but an act of love. Love doesn’t always mean that we have to be agreeable, complacent, passive, and non-judgmental as some might want us to believe, sometimes it means the opposite. Especially when done with compassion, empathy, understanding and for the right reason. And the saving of souls feels like a pretty good reason to me. Maybe not unlike the Jews at the temple, is it a possibility that today’s Gospel message was meant to be a disruption in our lives. Maybe we are now being confronted with a deeply uncomfortable truth. Maybe this is to be a moment to re-evaluate and to re-assess. Is it enough for us to fulfill our rituals, or do we need to reconnect with the heart of the faith that is at the core of the rituals?The good news today comes in the reminded that: we are not to be caught up in empty rituals; we are reminded that the rituals have embedded within them wonderful and mysterious meanings and that they are to nourish our lives.And the good news is that we are to work at developing a deep, intimate, and personal relationship with Christ.And that by doing so we will be able to recognize him in the Sacraments, in those we love, in those around us, and even in those that at times we struggle to love.

Sunday, October 12, 2014

Faith Isn't Enough!

28th Sunday Ordinary Time (Year A) 
Matthew 22:1-14

I’m not sure about you, but often when I read one of the gospels I can be confused as to what the actual meaning might be.

Today’s gospel from Matthew is one of those confusing gospels for me, at least it was initially.
Preparing for this homily I needed to spend some time looking into the specific references to understand what was actually being said.

After the use of a few concordances the parable began to come alive as is true for most parables once we begin to understand the deeper meaning and hidden message.

This parable however contains a deep and troubling message for many of us here today.
It speaks of faith, and how faith alone may grant you a meeting with God but not necessarily entrance into heaven.

Let’s take a closer look at the details of the parable.

First of all we must understand that the story is actually describing God as the King, Jesus as the son, and the bride is the invisible kingdom of heaven here on earth.

The first guests that were invited and who refused to come to the banquet were the Jewish people and their leaders, God’s chosen people.

They rejected God’s invitation.

Those of the second invitation were the gentiles, the non-Jewish people.

Some of them ignored the invitation and went away without giving the invitation another thought, while others not only rejected it, but fought fervently against the kingdom in opposition.

But our God, our King, being the merciful and forgiving Lord that he is, reaching out again and invited everyone, saints and sinners to the feast.

He invited anyone who cared to come.

They were invited to participate in the Kingdom of God.

Now this is where the story gets interesting, and the idea of the wedding garment can be confusing to some.

Thankfully Pope Benedict, citing Saint Gregory the Great in one of his homilies clarified that the wedding garment is actually a reference to charity, meaning love and service.

Now knowing this, the parable begins to make sense.

In other words, probably everyone who had arrived at the banquet had faith, but those who had failed to practice charity in their lives, meaning Love of God and neighbor, they did not gain admittance.
Still a little confused?

Let’s look at the scripture once again now knowing what we know.

“The servants went out into the streets and gathered all they found, bad and good alike, and the hall was filled with guests. But when the King came in to meet the guests, he saw a man there not dressed in a wedding garment. The king said to him, ‘my friend how is it that you came in here without a wedding garment?’”

The man was silent; he knew exactly what God was saying.

He had passed from this world onto the next and was being judged for his life on earth.

Both he and God knew the truth and the man had nothing to say.

Actually there wasn’t anything to say or that could be said, the time to act had already passed.

God being a God of justice, then ordered the man to be cast out and into the darkness where there will be wailing and grinding of teeth.

We all know what and where that place is….. It’s HELL!

And the parable ends by reminding us that, “Many are invited, but few are chosen.”


This message left me feeling more than a little troubled.

I always wanted to think of God as being infinitely merciful and forgiving, which he is, but I so often forget that he is also a God of Justice and that we will be judged for how we lived our lives while here on earth.

This parable made to stop and think about my own life, and how God will probably see me when I stand before him face to face.

Yes, I have faith, and so do you, if we didn’t we wouldn’t be here today. But so did everyone else who was invited to the banquet, they also had faith. Yet, Faith alone isn’t enough, isn’t that what Jesus is telling us in the parable.

Please don’t misunderstand what I am trying to say today. We don’t earn our way into heaven, or earn our salvation; Jesus already took care of that. But we do make choices in life; those choices are called our free will.

We either respond by living a Christian life in action and deed, or we do not, there really isn’t a category of being “A pretty good Catholic.”

One of my favorite scriptures is from the book of James and speaks of faith and works.

Saint James clearly states that Faith without works is a faith that is dead.

What a startling message for us here today.

Thinking that we might just be one of those people who have believed and believed without a doubt, and thought that we would be welcomed in heaven at our time of death, yet we might just be judged unworthy to gain entrance when that time comes upon us.

I think Jesus might be asking us to open our eyes a little wider and to take a step back and ask ourselves a few questions.

Have we loved enough?
Have we forgiven enough?
Have we cared for others enough?
Have we truly lived a life of service to others,
or have we lived  a life of mostly serving ourselves?

After pondering these questions for some time I came to the realization that to answer them honesty my answer to all of them would need to “No!

I have not done enough!”

I might assume also that some of you, if you gave the questions deep and honest thought, you might just be in a similar situation.

Believing in Christ is wonderful, but it is Christ and His Spirit in us that should be constantly changing us.

We should be growing in humility, patience, love, and charity each day of our lives.

This transformation is what empowers us to do the works of a sincere Christian.

In a few minutes we will be receiving Christ in the Holy Eucharist, we should allow him to change us, purify us, inspire us, and guide us.

The most powerful thing we can do is to worthily accept Jesus Christ in the Holy Eucharist and then respond to his call.

That call is so often heard in the quiet of our hearts, and that is why a time of quiet and prayer is so important after receiving communion.

Yet, we have to want to hear his voice.
We have to want to be changed.
We have to want to be a sincere follower of Christ.

Although today’s gospel contains a sobering message, it also contains the good news.

The good news is that we are still here on earth, we still have a free will, and that we can begin this minute thinking about our lives in a different way.

Thinking about how we treat our family, how we treat those sitting next us in church, and how we treat those in need that we haven’t even met yet.

We can choose to be people of action; with our smiles, our kindness, our love, our charity, and our friendships, or we can chose to be something else.

The Good News is that we have heard God speak today through the Gospel, we have understood his warning, and hopefully we can be inspired and guided by His Spirit to not only respond to the  invitation to the banquet, but to also be invited in, and accepted as eternal guests into the heavenly kingdom forever and ever, Amen.

Sunday, October 05, 2014

The Mass Explained

A wonderful talk about the Mass, What it is and where it came from!

Tuesday, September 23, 2014

The Psychological Effects of Abortion

The Psychological Effects of Abortion 

Deacon Patrick Kearns, RN-BC, BSN, PHN
Board Certified Psychiatry / Mental Health Nurse
Certified Public Health Nurse
Roman Catholic Deacon

     The topic of abortion has been a controversial issue for over 40 years and continues to create debate amongst political, academic, and religious groups. Although many people have strong feelings regarding this issue, often they lack factual knowledge regarding the potential associated psychological repercussions. There are two distinct types of abortion, spontaneous and elective. A spontaneous abortion is the action of the body expelling a fetus and the woman having no control over the action. An elective abortion is the act in which a woman makes a cognitive decision to terminate her pregnancy and often seeks professional assistance to accomplish the act. In 1973, with the case of Row versus Wade, the Supreme Court of the United States of America established that a woman has the legal right to terminate her pregnancy by having the human fetus removed from within her womb. Since the legalization of abortion, there has been an enormous response with the utilization of medical technology in separating the growing fetus from the woman’s womb and terminating the pregnancy. There are many reasons why some women desire to terminate a pregnancy ranging from the perception of not having enough money to raise a child, to not being mature enough, to feeling that the child will interfere with their plans of education or work, or plainly that they just do not want the child. Apart from having the legal right to abort and terminate a pregnancy, there have been many claims that there might be residual side effects from an abortion act. This research paper will explore the potential psychological effects of an elective abortion, specifically looking for a post-abortion correlation with mental health complications, long-term psychological issues, residual relationship deterioration, changes in sexual attitude, and lifestyle adjustments. Further research is important in exploring the complexity of these issues and to give additional insight into the psychological effects of abortion, however, this paper will clearly show through an intensive review of credible studies that current research does confirm that having an abortion often leads to mental health problems, relationship issues, and unhealthy behavior.

     Although the physical process of having an abortion may only take an hour or two, abortions may trigger significant and long-lasting mental health problems. A psychological study completed in 2006 showed that 65% of women who chose an elective abortion possessed a significantly higher risk for subsequent depressive illness (Fergusson, Horwood & Ridder, 2006). Possessing a higher risk does not necessarily mean that the woman will need treatment for depression but does imply that the population of women who do terminate their pregnancies will be more likely to experience a depressive life episode than women that did not terminate their pregnancy. Further research by Coleman (2009) established that 10-30% of women who chose to terminate their pregnancy suffered significant psychological complications. For example, Speckhard (1997) identified that after the abortion many women claim to suffer incidents of flashbacks related to emotions of great attachment to the terminated child and these episodes frequently contain images of a torn apart fetus, visual images, and emotions experienced at the time of the abortion, and great distress regarding judgment and grief. This research not only identifies an elevated risk for mental health complications but also confirms that the act of terminating a pregnancy may lead to significant mental health issues in a substantial amount of women.

   For years, the personal choice of having an abortion had been considered a woman’s issue and thought that whatever she choose in respect to maintaining or terminating the pregnancy would only affect her and no one else. For some women, they described that once the pregnancy was terminated they felt free from physical and emotional distress. However, evidence suggests that many women who have aborted their child mentally suppress the memories and emotions related to the abortion and subsequently experience physiological sequela such as headaches, concentration problems, social isolation and weight changes (Boulind & Edwards, 2010). In addition, research conducted by Coleman, Rue, Spence and Coyle (2008) claims that 18% of men who have had exposure with a terminated pregnancy report that they suffer negative psychological symptoms. This important research established that having an abortion is not just a personal decision of the impregnated woman, isolating potential negative repercussions, but rather affects the lives of others as well. 

    Elective abortion is not only an adult woman’s issue. Since the legalization of abortion, many have advocated to allow teenagers and minors to terminate pregnancies as well. With the promotion for adolescents and teenagers participating in abortions there has been a huge impact on the lives of adolescent women that has increased the possibility of a higher risk of mental health complications than in older women. For example, Ely, Flaherty and Cuddeback (2010) established that there is a significantly elevated rate of depression among adolescent women who have had an abortion, increasing the associated rate from 8% in the general adolescent population to 40% in the population who chose to abort. This respected study supports the claim that the younger a woman chooses to abort, in respect to an older woman, may attribute a higher risk of psychological complications, especially among adolescents and teenagers.

   With increasing research showing that in fact there is a negative psychological impact on women who choose to terminate their pregnancies, there was concern that subsequent abortions might also have a multiplying effect on complications and that there might be long-term residual effects as well. This unanswered question motivated additional studies in which provided factual evidence that did support the claim that with repeated abortions the rate of psychological complications also increased (Coleman, Coyle & Rue, 2010). Establishing that having an abortion does contribute to stress and subsequent mental health issues, there was still a need to evaluate if the effects were time-limited, or if there would be long-lasting complications for women who choose to terminate a pregnancy. In response to the need for additional information, Dykes, Slade and Haywood (2011) conducted a study with women who were at the age of menopause and had previously chosen to terminate a pregnancy. The study focused on establishing evidence to either support or negate the possibility that by having an abortion one might experience residual psychological complications that would not diminish over time. Their studies suggest that there are long-term repercussions from participating in the act of an abortion, specifically that at five years post-abortion there is an elevated risk for anxiety and depression, and at 10 years post-abortion many women report a continuation of negative thoughts regarding the abortion and a persistent fear of judgment (Dykes, Slade & Haywood, 2011). In light of this research, there appears to be evidence that confirms enhanced negative psychological effects with multiple abortions and long-term consequences for those associated with the abortion event.

    The question of terminating a pregnancy has led some to contemplate if the removal of a growing fetus has a significant impact on the couple associated with the pregnancy while also having the possibility of affecting future relationships. As a result of this pending question, a study by Coleman, Rue and Spence (2007) provided evidence that post-abortion many women experience the development of an insecure attachment condition that affects relationships and relationship communication through forming emotions of betrayal, mistrust, insecurity, and thoughts of abandonment. In contrast, many women find that as they mature their ability to openly share their feelings and thoughts with others also grows. Yet for those who have chosen to abort a child, they may experience a somewhat different growth experience. For instance, studies suggest that many women who experience an abortion event have difficulty describing their feelings and develop avoidance symptoms (van Emmerik, Kamphuis & Emmelkamp, 2008). The inability to freely express and voice feelings can have a serious effect on relationships. If men and women have difficulty with honest communication, one could only imagine the possible repercussions preventing the maintenance of a healthy relationship. These barriers can become huge obstacles as further stressful life events challenge the relationship. These studies confirm that the decision to terminate a pregnancy may not only affect the woman in her current relationship but also supported the claim that the act of abortion might also affect subsequent relationships as well.

   Most people understand that love, commitment, and a satisfying sex life are important in maintaining a healthy relationship. For years, the idea of love has been associated with sex, and sex has been associated with love. Many poets and spiritual writers have eloquently described that the union of two individuals is the most beautiful of love events here on earth. However, for those who have experienced an abortion event there seems to be a modification or evolution of what sex and love mean to them. For example, research completed by Coleman, Rue, Spence and Coyle (2008) suggest that after an abortion, both men and women have reported that there has been a change in their original view that sex should only happen if in love and that their number of sexual partners had increased after the abortion. The understanding that a man and woman do not need to be in love to have sex changes the whole concept of relationship and diminishes the beauty and significance of the conjugal embrace to nothing more than a recreational act and removes the need for commitment. In 2008, further research was conducted that explored the residual effects of abortion and the reported sex lives of women. Research suggested that 24% of women experience negative sexual effects post-abortion, 33% experiencing a decline in sexual desire, and 26% reported a decrease in sexual enjoyment (Coleman, Rue, Spence & Coyle, 2008). These studies appear to confirm that a woman who terminates a pregnancy may experience a significant change in her concept of relationship, commitment, love, and even her sexual satisfaction.

   There is also a concern that one who has had an abortion might experience a serious negative condition known as detachment. This condition represents an inability to form a healthy attachment to children and can be a significant obstacle for healthy parenting. A study reinforcing this concept was completed in 2009 investigating the effects of having an abortion and parenting. The results of the study identified evidence that 69% of women who experienced an abortion reported having a sense of numbness and detachment often felt for years. This condition of numbness and detachment can affect the bonding with other children, specifically, that many women possess the sense that they are now not worthy to have a child and that to compensate for the abortion they need to be a perfect parent (Coleman, 2009). This psychological state can become problematic for women who possess unrealistic expectations in regard to parenting and can cause residual problems not only for themselves but for the child as well. Individuals who have a balance of work, play, proper nutrition, rest, positive friendships, and possess functional coping mechanisms usually exhibit a healthy lifestyle. There has been some concern that by having an abortion one might experience a negative change in their lifestyle, adopting unhealthy behaviors, and due to this concern there was a need for further research. This concern for further investigation did inspire Coleman (2009) to explore this issue more deeply. Her research found that by having an abortion a change did occur in the woman’s lifestyle but more specifically in her ability to cope in general. Her research provided evidence to support that there is an associated psychological connection between having an abortion and an increase in unhealthy behaviors such as excessive use of alcohol, drugs, food, spending, work, and sex (Coleman, 2009). With the identification of this link between having an abortion and the development of unhealthy behaviors there was also concern in identifying why and how this actually occurs. In 2011 a study was completed that explored why this phenomenon occurred and found further evidence that suggested that women who have had an abortion are more often associated with using substances to cope with additional pregnancies (Dykes, Slade & Haywood, 2011).

     In spite of these scientific studies, there are still many questions unanswered regarding how the participation in an elective abortion affects the psyche of a woman. Taking into account what we do know in the field of mental health, it is common for men and women to experience a significant event in their lives and then either consciously or subconsciously develop negative psychological repercussions from that event. Similarly, when a person feels justified in their rationale for making a significant life decision, many seem to experience unresolved guilt and emotions related to the event that can linger causing instability in their lives. Supporting such a claim, in a study by Speckhard (1997) it was identified that by choosing to have an elective abortion there is an association with the retention of feelings that linger regarding the abortion and the inability to reconcile with those emotions. This condition has led some women to an increase in aggressive actions and even violence (Speckhard, 1997). In light of these scientific studies, it appears that there is factual evidence supporting the association with terminating a pregnancy and a change in lifestyle with an increase in unhealthy behaviors.

     In review and conclusion of this evaluation of the psychological effects of abortion, it appears that there is sufficient evidence that supports the claim that by having an abortion there is a higher associated risk of mental health issues, not only affecting women, but also the men who participated in the experience. The research has also shown that by having an abortion experience many women will be subject to long-lasting complications with partner relationships as well as parenting issues. The studies also seem to suggest that for many having an abortion leads to unhealthy behaviors such as substance abuse, aggression, and excessive use of work and sex as coping mechanisms. There is a great need for further research in the area of discovering the association with choosing to abort a growing fetus and the psychological effects of abortion. This further research will allow an honest evaluation of the complexity of this issue and should give additional insight not only for the women contemplating abortion but for the greater society as well. However, it is apparent that current research does confirm that having an abortion often leads to mental health problems, relationship issues, and unhealthy behavior. 

 Reference List 

Boulind, M., & Edwards, D. (2010). The Assessment and Treatment of Post-Abortion Syndrome: A Systematic Case Study From Southern Africa. PCSP: Pragmatic Case Studies in Psychotherapy, 6(4), 539-547. 

Coleman, P. (2009). The psychological pain of perinatal loss and subsequent parenting risks: could induced abortion be more problematic than other forms of loss. Current Women’s Health Reviews, 5(2), 88-99. 

Coleman, P. K., Coyle, C. T., & Rue, V. M. (2010). Late-Term Elective Abortion and Susceptibility to Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms. Journal Of Pregnancy, 1-10. 

Coleman, P. K., Rue, V. M., Spence, M. & Coyle, C. T. (2008). Abortion and the sexual lives of men and women: Is casual sexual behavior more appealing and more common after abortion? International Journal Of Clinical Health & Psychology, 8(1), 77-91. 

Coleman, P. K., Rue, V. M., & Spence, M. (2007). Intrapersonal Processes and Post-Abortion Relationship Challenges: A Review and Consolidation of Relevant Literature. Internet Journal Of Mental Health, 4(2): 34p 

Dykes, K., Slade, P., & Haywood, A. (2011). Long-term follow-up of emotional experiences after termination of pregnancy: women’s views at menopause. Journal Of Reproductive & Infant Psychology, 29(1), 93-112. doi:10.1080/02646838.2010.513046 

Ely, G. E., Flaherty, C., & Cuddeback, G. S. (2010). The Relationship Between Depression and Other Psychological Problems in a Sample of Adolescent Pregnancy Termination Patients. Child & Adolescent Social Work Journal, 27(4), 269-282. 

Fergusson, D. M., Horwood, L., & Ridder, E.M. (2006). Abortion in young women and subsequent mental health. Journal Of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 47(1), 16-24. doi:10.1111/j. 1469-7610.2005.01538.x 

Speckhard, A. (1997). For some teens, abortion as a means of coping can become a stressor. Brown University Child & Adolescent Behavioral Letter, 13(1), 1. 

van Emmerik, A., Kamphuis, J., & Emmelkamp, P. (2008). Prevalence and prediction of re-experiencing and avoidance after elective surgical abortion: a prospective study. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 15(6), 378-385.

Monday, September 22, 2014

50th Birthday (Get-A-Way Weekend)

Liz and I flew up to Seattle for a wonderful Get-A-Way weekend.

Monday, September 15, 2014